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Self-Quiz on Sex, Friendship, and Love

Revised 11/23/2016. Welcome to the self-quiz on the Human Nervous System. These questions accompany Chapter 16 (Sex, Friendship, and Love) of the online textbook Psychology: An Introduction). They are general enough to be useful for students using other textbooks as well.

Read the question and click on an answer. You will jump to a correction or (if the answer is correct) a confirmation.

  1. What if a fetus is genetically male but there are no male hormones?
  2. What are secondary sex characteristics?
  3. What role does novelty play in sexual arousal?
  4. What are aphrodisiacs?
  5. What is said to be the "biggest problem" with sexual adjustment in marriage?
  6. In recent research, how many adults are homosexual, if defined by repeated contacts in adulthood?
  7. A large majority of lesbians...
  8. Transvestites are almost always...
  9. What is the general effect of physical attractiveness?
  10. What are common threads in two studies of happy long-term relationships?
End of multiple choice questions for Chapter on Sex, Friendship, and Love

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ANSWERS AND DISCUSSION SECTION

[The remainder of the page is not meant to be read sequentially; it consists of answers and explanations separated by stretches of nothing. You will jump back and forth to these as you click on possible answers of the questions.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

the result is a "eunuch"

No, "eunuch" is the biblical term for a castrated male, which is something different.

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You picked...

the result is a "hermaphrodite"

No, a hermaphrodite (person with female breasts and male genitilia) is the result of unusual hormonal evernts during the mother's pregnancy, but not a complete lack of male hormones.

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You picked...

the result is a spontaneous abortion

No, such babies can develop to term and be delivered in normal childbirths.

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You picked...

the fetus develops as a female

Yes...without androgens (male hormones) the baby develops as a female, even if it has the XY (male) genetic pattern.

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You picked...

current theory suggests this may cause homosexuality

No... there is a possibility that homosexuality results from hormonal influences during the mother's pregnancy, but a complete lack of male hormones produces a different outcome.

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You picked...

such things as facial hair in men, breast development in women

Yes...secondary sex characteristics are the sex-typical characteristics which develop during adolescence.

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You picked...

sex-linked changes in early childhood

No, secondary sex characteristics develop after puberty (during adolescence).

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You picked...

"incidental" sex characteristics, like preference for rough and tumble play in childhood

No, "secondary" does not mean "incidental" in this case...it means something like "later developing."

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You picked...

eye shadow, hair length, etc.

No, these things can be characteristic of either sex, whereas secondary sex characteristics are normally quite gender-specific.

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You picked...

"invisible" sexual characteristics

No, secondary sex characteristics can be visible.

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You picked...

it creates anxiety

No...it might in some cases, but research suggests a different, more typical effect of novelty.

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You picked...

it arouses but inhibits performance

No, it tends to increase the likelihood of sex (at least in animals).

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You picked...

it stimulates arousal in both humans and animals

Yes. For example, rams (male sheep) will mate repeatedly with new ewes (female sheep) as they are brought into a breeding pen. Breeders can "trick" a ram into mating more than once with a ewe simply by leading her away then bringing her back into the pen as if new. If the same ewe stays in the pen, however, the ram will mate with her only once.

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You picked...

it is arousing to animals but not humans

No, humans also find novelty arousing. For example, the most commonly reported fantasy among married couples is "a different partner."

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You picked...

it "depends on culture"

No, as far as I know, response to novelty is independent of culture.

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You picked...

substances which make a person seem beautiful or attractive

No, aphrodisiacs are supposed to have a more specific effect...

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You picked...

opiate antagonists

No, opiate antagonists such as Naloxone are not aphrodisiacs.

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You picked...

androgen antagonists

No, an androgen antagonist (something which combatted the chemical effects of male hormones) would probably have the opposite effect as an aphrodisiac in both males and females.

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You picked...

extracts from certain herbs such as fly agaric

No...perhaps you are thinking of "Spanish fly," a lengendary (also unsafe and ineffective) aphrodisiac.

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You picked...

"mostly mythical" substances which increase sexual arousal

Yes. Many aphrodisiacs are "mythical" in the sense that they have no reliable action, in double blind tests, but they work through placebo effects (in other words, because people believe in them). Recently scientists have identified some substances which might actually increase sexual desire, such as Yohimbe.

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You picked...

inability or unwillingness to find out what the partner really desires

No, most married people (at least, those who seek help) are willing to find out what the partner desires, if it solves a problem in sexual adjustment.

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You picked...

lack of desire in the male

No, although this was a problem reported with increased frequently during the 1980s, it is not known as the "biggest problem" in marital sexual adjustment.

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You picked...

lack of desire in the female

No, this is not known as the "biggest problem" in sexual adjustment in marriage, although it might be a problem in some marriages.

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You picked...

falling out of love

No; this could certainly kill sexual interest, but it is not the problem most commonly cited by marriage counselors and others who deal with sexual adjustment in marriage.

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getting too busy and exhausted from work or children

Yes...in our modern world, young couples—especially those juggling two jobs and/or raising young children—find themselves exhausted and busy and (often) no longer treating each other as passionate lovers. One solution suggested by some therapists is to set aside special romantic times..."resume dating."

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You picked...

1.5%

No, that is the number who report "currently being involved in a lasting homosexual relationship in adulthood."

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You picked...

about 5%

Yes...according to the most recent surveys (in the U.S. in the 1990s) about 5% of adults have repeated homosexual contacts.

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You picked...

about 10%

No, that is a famous estimate from the late 1940s research by Kinsey, but it may have been biased in part because Kinsey's sample included many men who were interviewed in prison.

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about 25%

No, research reveals a figure lower than that.

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You picked...

over 50%

No, Kinsey suggested in the late 1940s that 50% of men had at least one homosexual experience in their lives, if "homosexual experience" includes any sort of same-sex genital contact at any age. That is a very different thing than "repeated homosexual contacts during adulthood."

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You picked...

had homosexual dreams and fantasies during adolescence

Yes...and this strongly distinguishes lesbians from non-lesbians, even though many lesbians (up to half, in some surveys) report that their sexual orientation is a "choice."

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report disliking children

No, lesbians do not "dislike children" as a group. Many are good parents.

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You picked...

are indistinguishable from non-lesbians as children

No, lesbians as a group are far more likely than non-lesbians to report a "repetitive childhood wish to be a boy" although by adulthood there is more likely to be a strong identification with other women.

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report that they wish they were heterosexuals

No, the majority of gays and lesbians surveyed do not wish to change their sexual orientation.

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say their lesbianism is "involuntary" and "biological"

No, lesbians sometimes feel their lesbianism is inborn and natural, and sometimes they feel it is a choice. Gay men, by contrast, are far more likely to feel their sexual orientation is biological and inevitable.

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homosexual

No, many transvestites are not homosexual in orientation.

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bisexual

No, as far as I know, no research shows that transvestites are "almost always" bisexual.

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transsexuals

No, transsexualism (an old word for gender-changing operations or behavior) is not the same thing as transvestism (sexual arousal caused by dressing like the opposite sex).

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You picked...

dressing for convenience rather than a thrill

No, lesbians who dress as men report doing so for "convenience," while men who dress like women more often report doing it for a "thrill."

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men

Yes...for whatever reason, most people who report being sexually aroused by dressing like the "opposite sex" are men.

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You picked...

jealous behavior by same-gender peers, leading to social problems

No, this sounds plausible but has not been reported in any research of which I know.

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suspicion that a person is not genuine or authentic

No, a beautiful person may be suspected of being "fakey" but so might a non-beautiful person. I am not aware of any research showing a difference between groups in this regard.

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You picked...

beautiful people are assumed to be superior in intelligence, health, wealth, etc.

Yes...many people seem to act as if "beautiful is better" when evaluating individuals known through appearance only.

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You picked...

beautiful people actually have a harder time finding friends

No, research shows people are more likely to select a good looking person as a likely friend.

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about three times more likelihood of a sexual relationship

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No, this sounds plausible but research has not shown this, as far as I know.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

exchanging compliments was important

No, compliments or flattery may be important in courtship, but this does not emerge as one of the most important variables in a happy marriage.

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common values, for example, in spiritual matters

Yes...several studies of happy long-term marriages found that common values (reflected in philosophical or religious beliefs, for example) were regarded as among the most important factors by the married people themselves.

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emphasizing sex more than friendship

No, although passionate feelings in a relationship are positively correlated with long-term satisfaction, this factor does not outweigh the importance friendship, which is also very important in many long, happy marriages.

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one member of the couple assumes a "submissive" role

No, that particular factor has not been shown to be correlated with long-term marital happiness. (Clarity about roles of other kinds, such as who pays the bills and who participates in childcare, does seem to be important.)

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frequent "time away from each other"

No, the opposite is true. Couples who were still happy after many decades tended to be people who spent a lot of time together.

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Write to Dr. Dewey at psywww@gmail.com.


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