Psych Web Resources

APA Style Resources
Places to get information

Full-length classics on-line

Online pamphlets

Careers in Psychology
by Marky Lloyd

Psychology Departments on the Web

PAI: Psychology, An Introduction
by Russ Dewey

Psychology of Religion
by Michael Nielsen

Scholarly Resources
In order by topic

Self-Help Resources
Information about psychological disorders

Self-Quiz for Introductory Psychology
by Russ Dewey

Sport Psychology
with Karlene Sugarman, M.A.

States of Consciousness
by Jouni Smed

Tip Sheets
For Psych Majors

Welcome to Psych Web!

Welcome to Psych Web! This Web site contains lots of psychology-related information for students and teachers of psychology. Browse through the subdivisions of the site on the left, or if you know the proper keywords for your topic, try a site-specific Google search below:

Search Psych Web

What's New

[04/30/2017] OK, I finished it. May Day is my own holiday this year. I did not expect this revision of the textbook to take so long, because I thought I would just update it a bit, but I ended up making a major revision. That is just as well; the old version was uploaded in 2007 and really needed revision.

The next steps are to insert Google adsense codes, put forwarding links on the old pages, and upload everything. The other sections of Psych Web have been reformatted for responsive web design as well. I will comment on them after uploading.

[04/20/17] I am up to Chapter 14 proofreading the 2017 version of the intro book, correcting errors as I go, and finding many in every chapter. That is disappointing. I had run spellchecks and link checks on every page and thought I was about done, but no... a "close reading" finds every other sort of error.

But that is why proofreading is necessary. It might take me another week or two to finish. I won't upload it until it is ready, and I continue to work full time on this revision. --Dr D.

[01/18/17] Happy New Year. Big changes coming... I learned RWD (responsive web design) and I'm converting the whole site. This will make it smartphone-friendly. I want to finish converting the intro book, now the biggest draw on Psych Web, before uploading everything. I'm doing a full revision of the intro book because it has been on the web since 2007, so I'm updating, rewriting, and revising every page (over 600 pages).

[02/01/2016] Now it is 2016 and the site has turned 21. I continue to make small tweaks to PAI (Psychology: An Introduction) and provide citation data for people who email asking for it. The intro book was uploaded around 2007 and I have made only small updates since, but basic introductory findings in a mature science do not change rapidly. The integrative theme of the textbook (that mind and behavior is the result of a synthesis, an active creative process, both cognitive and neurophysiological) has also withstood the test of time.

The web itself, and the way people access it, is changing much faster. Over a third of web traffic is from mobile devices now, and anybody who does not adapt to this by providing a mobile-friendly site is in danger of disappearing from Google rankings. Psych Web and the Psychology: An Introduction textbook can be used on small devices because the formatting is so simple. The text just reflows. However, modern sites should have other mobile-friendly formatting, such as navigation bars designed for small screens. It's coming. [It took me most of the year to master CSS3 and HTML5, though, with many interruptions like repairing my workshop roof after a hurricane. RWD proved to be easy once I understood it (like computer stuff always is) but it took some time to understand it.]

[12/31/2014] New Year's Eve is a good time to reflect on the passage of time and the evolution of plans for Psych Web. 2015 marks the 20th year of Psych Web's existence online.

Here's how it happened (FWIW). In August, 1994, I read an article in Science about this new thing called the World Wide Web and the Mosaic browser. The faculty at Georgia Southern had just gained internet access. I pestered Ken Williams, the director of Computer Services, to get the Netscape web server, which he did. In April, 1995, I put up Georgia Southern's first web page, Psych Web. A few years later I moved the site off the university servers to a private web hosting service.

Psych Web started as a collection of resources for psychology majors and teachers. There was some original content, links to other psychology-related sites, and some mirrors of a few good overseas sites relevant to psychology. In those days, web sites on the other side of the ocean were very slow to appear in web browsers, so mirrors were helpful. One of those mirrored sites was the States of Consciousness archive by Jouni Smed, which was taken down after he graduated from his college...but is still available here on Psych Web, still useful.

Mike Nielsen and Marky Lloyd, colleagues in the Georgia Southern Psychology Department, put sections on Psych Web at my invitation. Both were very well received. As soon as Google appeared, Mike's Psychology of Religion site shot to the coveted #1 position for "psychology and religion." Mike and Marky remain good friends. Marky retired in 2004, the same year I did, and she currently lives in Boulder, CO. Mike is now the head of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern. His kickstarter-funded survey of Mormon attitudes toward female ordination and similar issues was widely publicized this past year.

In 2007 I put my introductory psychology textbook online. Up until 2003 I had each new edition privately printed in batches of 1000 for my students. Each book was a hefty 900 pages. Suddenly, online, it was free and weightless! At first it did not receive much traffic and nobody seemed to realize it was there, but every year since 2007 has seen an uptick in traffic to it, and it is now one of the most visited parts of Psych Web.

After 2007 I added no new features, just repaired links and made changes and corrections that people requested through email. Some Psych Web pages were last updated in 2007! Most have been freshened since then, but I will go through the site systematically in 2015 to make sure broken links are fixed and new material added. Given the absence of big changes, click bait, and listicles, it is remarkable and heartening to me that Psych Web continues to draw so many visitors. That is particularly true of Marky's Careers in Psychology site and my online textbook section, plus Mike's Psychology of Religion pages and Karlene Sugarman's Sport Psychology pages. The common feature of these most-durable parts of Psych Web is that they contain good basic information which has not gone out of date. Terrific. Content rules. You can do some serious work, put high quality content online, and it gets used for years even if you mostly leave it alone.

In 2013 I returned temporarily to student status by participating in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC), as described below. The MOOC was about Complex Systems, a longstanding interest of mine, and it originated from the famous Sante Fe Institute. I really liked it! It continues to be offered on a regular basis and I think it would be a worthwhile course for anybody in experimental or cognitive areas of psychology, including neuroscience. All of them involve the dynamics of complex systems. This experience showed me an obvious connection between MOOCs and the more durable resources on Psych Web. The way I see it, an ideal MOOC should be available at any time, online, completely free of the constraints of terms or semesters, with built-in self testing. The web is ideal for that.

Looking forward to 2015, I plan a general freshening of the site plus several major new sections, including one devoted to psychology-related videos. Rather than over-promise, I will get to work on them and announce them as they are put online. So those are my resolutions for 2015 (declared in public!): a general freshening of the site, a few significant new instructional sections, and more video. We will see what happens! -Russ Dewey

[08/23/2013] I finished the Complex Systems MOOC in June and I'm proud to say I got 100 on the final (albeit an open-web final). It was strange but fun being in the college student role again, 35 years after getting my PhD. I even experienced the phenomenon of putting a stupid, erroneous answer on a quiz, when I knew better, but it was too late to change (because I had already submitted the answers)! Doh! I remember my own students complaining about this phenomenon... Fortunately, the quizzes only counted for a small portion of the grade. I made sure I double and triple-checked the final, let me tell you...even though it should not have mattered at all. It did, though. We never stop wanting to do well.

I recommend the course to students interested in cognitive science, where the "complexity sciences" are increasingly relevant. According to the course organizers, "7099 people enrolled, 1176 (~17%) of these finished successfully. Of the people who completed the first homework assigment, 50% went on to finish the course. Of those who finished the course, the average score on the final exam was 95%." So my high final exam score was actually typical...but it required a lot of searching the instructional modules to round up all the facts, and it was an effective intergrative exercise (which is the main rationale for a final exam). The next iteration of the course starts September 30, 2013.

For what it's worth, here are my reactions to the MOOC experience.

  1. The friendliness and coherence of the primary instructor remains important. Melanie Mitchell of Portland State University taught this course, and she did a great job. I bought her book Complexity: A Guided Tour on Amazon because of this course, although it was not required, and I thoroughly enjoyed it as well. Melanie projects warmth and intelligence and a desire for her students to understand.
  2. Like most evolutionary offshoots, the MOOC retains vestigial remains of its ancestors. The course was organized around talking-head lectures. These were short 5-15 minutes segments, easy to digest, but really the information content of each one could have been put into a half-page outline (or less). I felt ever since teaching Keller Plans (an independent study technique) at Michigan as a grad student that lectures were an obsolete information delivery system. Everything you can put into a long lecture you can put into a short, well-organized text. Lectures do add a social element, so I think there is a limited role for them, but the printed word remains better for precise information delivery.
  3. The course used NetLogo, a simulation environment, and it was a revelation to me. NetLogo is one of several free, student-oriented variants of the original Logo program, but I had never used it. The course required us to download it and use it to understand system principles by modeling them in mini simulation environments. This was very effective. Much of what we teach at an introductory or intermediate level is captured in classic demonstrations. NetLogo allows students to run demonstrations on their own computers, alter the parameters, note the effects, alter short, to tinker and learn. Thre is no better way to understand something. For example, a classic example of synchronization involves flashing fireflies. (Steven Strogatz, a guest lecturer in this course, wrote a good book about this, called Sync.) In this course we downloaded a NetLogo simulation of firefly synchronization. We could alter the number of fireflies, flash rate, influence of neighbors, etc., to see how the synchronization was affected. It was a great way to learn and explore the subject.

How would I change MOOCs as they currently exist? One thing I would suggest is making them permanent, periodically updated web sites. There is really no reason to run a MOOC on the same schedule as a university term, unless it is tightly integrated with an actual class as some might be. Also, MOOCs cost some money to put together. So it makes sense to put some Google adsense ads on each page and leave the course up, free, for the students of the world (as indeed I have done with my intro psych book). I also wonder if a "Keller Plan" version of a MOOC is both practical and desirable: that is, put all the instructional information into written form, but retain the frequent small quizzes (that was a very useful feature of this MOOC). Maybe devote a smaller proportion of course resources to talking head videos...just enough to convey enthusiasm for the topic and introduce some guest speakers or relevant videos. I enjoyed how Dr. Mitchell interviewed many luminaries from the Santa Fe Institute, with which she is affiliated. When Luis Bettencourt's article on the scaling of cities came out in Science a few weeks after the MOOC ended, I had an enjoyable shock of recognition. We had covered the material, and Luis was one of our guest speakers.

Altogether this MOOC was well done. Check it out if you are interested!

[02/08/2013] As you may know, MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) are the big new thing in higher education. This interests me because MOOCs share the original purpose of Psych Web: using the internet to make educational resources freely available. In a MOOC, an established professor offers a course online, complete with lectures, quizzes, and grading. If you complete the course, a certificate is awarded. Universities are pondering how to expand the potential of this approach and award actual credits, but for now the concept is experimental, free, and not for actual college credit, just for educational edification.

I stumbled on a very interesting MOOC: Introduction to Complex Systems, taught by Dr. Melanie Mitchell of Portland State University. I saw the announcement for it while visiting the web site of the Santa Fe Institute, one of the foremost institutions of complex systems research. I signed up for the course, and I will get a student's perspective on this new MOOC phenomenon.

Here's a link if you want to check out the course.

Introduction to Complexity Theory course

I am pondering some MOOC-like evolutionary changes in Psych Web, also, after I finish a current (large!) project. Originally, when I put it online in early 1994, Psych Web was a way to direct students to interesting sites related to psychology, as well as dispensing some useful advice to psychology majors (via Marky Lloyd's Careers in Psychology site). In 2007 I put on Psych Web the introductory textbook that I had spent 30 years writing and using in my own classes at Georgia Southern University. About half the site traffic goes there now. In recent months I have received emails from China, Saudi Arabia, and Macedonia appreciating the availability of the intro book, so it is serving the originally intended purpose. The changes I have in mind would make the whole site more like a set of MOOCs [see the entry for 8/23/2013 above...I still think this is a good idea, so it is in the queue].

[09/27/2011] An email describes student reaction to the online introductory psychology textbook on this site (Psychology: An Introduction]. The book can also be accessed via Communications like this are welcome, including those pointing out typos or potential improvements.

"Hello Dr. Dewey,

"Just a little note to thank you for making Psych Web and Psychology: An Introduction available online for all of us out here. I used it this past semester on my Introductory Psychology class for non-majors and was just reading through the comments that the students made about using an online book instead of a traditional book. An overwhelming majority prefers the online book. Throughout the semester I got many comments on how they liked the book and the study questions, in addition to the convenience to have it accessible online. The only complaints were that it was uncomfortable to read for extended periods of time (as is any material read through computer monitor, I guess). Some still prefer a traditional book, but I was quite surprised that even with the usual complaints, the vast majority of the students still chose your book when asked which would they prefer if given a choice (between an online book and paper one)." --A.I. Fraticelli-Torres, Ph.D, University of Puerto Rico

[10/29/2010] More people are using the free intro book at this site, which is great, but we exceeded our bandwidth allocation and were briefly offline. Tom, the guy who runs our web hosting service, responded by doubling the bandwidth at no charge. That is actually typical. The service at is impeccable. Thanks, Tom.

[08/31/2010] A new school year begins. One result is a big jump in the numbers of visitors to Psych Web. Welcome to students everywhere! (Special thanks for the friendly emails from China, India, Iran, Singapore, Fiji Island, Papua New Guinea, South Africa, UK, Canada, Mexico, not to mention the good old U.S.A.). If you are using the free online intro psych textbook, Psychology: An Introduction or just have general questions about psychology, feel free to write to me at with questions or comments.

[08/12/2009] I noticed two interesting articles about online textbooks last week. First, the New York Times had a story: "In a Digital Future, Textbooks are History." Then the Wall Street Journal had an article titled, "Textbooks Offered for iPod, iPhones."

The Wall Street Journal article included a skeptical comment by an executive: "Nobody is going to use their iPhone to do their homework,.." But that is wrong! A month earlier I received an email from a student who was studying my online introductory psychology textbook, Psychology: An Introduction, on his iPhone. He said it was easy. And it is!

intropsych home page

First visit and, if you are using a portable device, bookmark the site so you don't have to type out the address every time. Here's the home page on the iPod Touch browser. (If you plan on reading the whole 700+ page textbook, wedge a miniature cat between your fingers for comfort.)

Now rotate the iPhone or iPod Touch to give a wide view, and double-tap on the text column to expand it. This is familiar web browsing technique for iPhone or iPod Touch users. Other portable devices with touch-screen browsers will probably work in a similar way. The result is a very readable text column.

By a happy coincidence, the iPhone/iPod Touch technique encourages the optimal studying approach I recommended in Chapter Zero of the textbook. First read without using the questions. Then, when it is time to test your memory for specifics, go back and review the questions without looking at the text to see if you can recall the answers from memory.

That happens naturally on the iPod Touch or the iPhone. When reading the text column, the questions are out of sight, the way they should be. To see the study questions, you zoom out to a full page view (double-tap the screen) then double-tap on a study question. Then you can see the question, but you cannot see the answer.

study question alone

The answer is nearby, in the text column to the right. First you truly test yourself (by not having the answer visible in your peripheral vision) then, if you need to double-check on the answer, double-tap the text column to see it.

[01/02/2009] My colleague Mike Nielsen successfully used for his introductory psychology class at Georgia Southern University during spring, summer, and fall term 2008. The students gave it high ratings, although a few did not like reading on the computer.

[09/03/2007] A complete, 725 page introductory psychology textbook has been added to the site. I have planned this for years, and I spent all summer getting it ready! Mike Nielsen (author of the Psychology of Religion site here on Psych Web) is using the book in his introductory psychology class at Georgia Southern this term. The presence of this book almost doubles the number of content pages on Psych Web. I have many updates to make to it, and I will be working on those during the coming months. In the meantime, check it out and let me know if you find any problems such as broken links and (inevitably) typos or other errors. [People have done that, and it has been very helpful.]

[06/03/2007] I have updated various pages with about 50 new links and corrections suggested by e-mail correspondents.

[01/12/2007] All 80 link pages in the Scholarly Resources and Self-Help sections have been updated.

[10/26/2006] If you haven't checked out Mike Nielsen's Psychology of Religion page, take a look; he has a great blog, too.

[01/15/2006] I have updated all pages of the Self Help section on Psych Web. In addition, I have discontinued the "Commerce" section and moved several of its pages into other sections. Here are links to the new locations of pages about biofeedback, licensure, software for psychologists, test publishers, and therapist finder sites.

[03/23/2005] Check out the list of "best online tests" (all free) on the Testing and Assessment page of Scholarly Psychology Resources on the Web.

[09/09/2004] I have tweaked the APA format crib sheet, making a few improvements in the final section which discusses reference formats.

[04/17/2004] I have reorganized the Self-Help section of Psych Web. Now there are pages devoted to each disorder. The amount of great, interesting material "out there" made this task enjoyable.

[03/10/2004] The Dream FAQ has been updated. The Dream FAQ is part of Jouni Smed's Altered States of Consciousness web site which has been mirrored here on Psych Web since 1995. The Dream FAQ is a good source of basic knowledge about dreams. I added editorial comments (which you can easily spot, because they are always in italics) to bring it up to date. Jouni's site also has excellent, thorough sections on hypnosis, lucid dreaming, and out-of-body experiences.

--Russ Dewey

Thank you for visiting Psych Web. If you have comments or corrections regarding the contents of Psych Web documents, please send e-mail. This is the Psych Web home page, Psych Web was created by Russell A. Dewey, PhD. Write to Dr. Dewey at